2012 Fall: Times are Changing: Evolution and Revolution in Medical Education

We begin our 11th year of IAMSE faculty development webcast seminars with a discussion of the contemporary changes in health professions education. Things are different from "when we were in school". No kidding! Professors teach differently. Our curricula are likely to be more integrated and in an applied context. Our role as a content expert may diminish as we become facilitators of learning and application of science in medicine. This poses challenges as teachers and education administrators. Drs. Carroll and Standley will explore these changing roles. Students learn differently. While we learned in a linear, building-block fashion the millennial learner may follow a non-linear, asynchronous route to understanding. Drs. Roberts and Pelley will help us understand their learning needs and processes, and how our teaching can transform them. Learning may be assessed differently. "Classical" exams are great for assessing factual knowledge but novel methods can require higher-order thinking and application. Drs. Brenner; Ginzburg and Metzger will explore new approaches that may be more appropriate for the patient-care world for which are students are being prepared. The more things change, the more they stay the same. Students still are motivated to learn their profession, faculty members are still motivated to facilitate learning efficiently, and schools are still motivated to use resources appropriately. Just differently.

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September 6, 2012 at 12:00 pm

Reaching and Teaching Millennial Learners

Presenter: David H. Roberts

David H. RobertsDavid H. Roberts, MD is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and the Associate Director of the Shapiro Institute for Education and Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Director of the Office of Undergraduate Medical Education, and Director of the BIDMC Academy of Medical Educators. Dr. Roberts is also the Associate Director of the Academy at HMS.

Dr. Roberts teaches medical students across the four years of HMS training and is course director for the 3rd year longitudinal Principal Clinical Experience (PCE) at BIDMC. Dr. Roberts also teaches residents, fellows and other physicians in practice, and he is a graduate of the Rabkin Fellowship in Medical Education and Harvard-Macy Program for Educators in Health Professions.

Dr. Roberts’ education research interests include studying learners’ curiosity and critical thinking skills. Dr. Roberts serves on the National Education Committees for the American Thoracic Society and the American College of Chest Physicians. He also co-directs the annual Harvard CME course “Principles of Medical Education: Maximizing your Teaching Skills.”

Dr. Roberts has won many teaching awards including “Teacher of the Year” (2005) in the Combined Harvard Program in Pulmonary Medicine, HMS Faculty Prize for Excellence in Teaching (2006), the S. Robert Stone Award for Excellence in Teaching at Harvard Medical School and BIDMC (2007) and the HMS Best Clinical Instructor at BIDMC (2010).

Dr. Roberts is the Director of Faculty Development for the Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine at BIDMC, and his clinical practice is focused on patients with dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension. Dr. Roberts co-authored the patient education website, www.knowyourph.org, and free downloadable iBook “Pulmonary Hypertension” which utilizes interactive animations to teach patients about pulmonary hypertension.

Generations are groups of individuals who are born or live at the same time and who share experiences and environmental influences by virtue of similar age. By extension and as a result of these shared experiences and environment, these groups often share attitudes, ideas, values, styles and problems.

In the US over the last nearly 100 years, there have been several distinct generations, commonly known as the “Silent” generation, the “Baby Boomers”, the Generation X, and now the “Millennial” Generation. Each generation has its own set of characteristics, defining moments and values, and shared conflicts and achievements.

These generational characteristics have had and continue to have significant influences on teaching and learning at all pedagogic levels. The current generation poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for medical educators. This session will review those challenges, including the growing body of literature about digital professionalism as well as the opportunities, including specific strategies for educators to enhance teaching and learning for Millennial trainees.

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September 13, 2012 at 12:00 pm

Teaching to transform the brain

Presenter: John Pelley

John PelleyDr. Pelley is a professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. During his tenure at Texas Tech he served for a decade as an Associate Dean in administration of the medical school curriculum. The challenges of helping students with learning issues caused him to acquire a strong interest in the learning process and he has spent the last 25 years working on educational projects instead of bench research. He has written a book, SuccessTypes, that summarizes his experience with learning styles and speaks regularly around the country at medical schools helping faculty, staff and students understand how to promote lifelong learning. He has been awarded the Alpha Omega Alpha Distinguished Teacher Award at the 2010 meeting of the American Association of Medical Colleges. His website, The SuccessTypes Medical Education page, is used as an educational resource at medical schools and other educational institutions around the world.

It is not surprising that the term “transformation” has multiple uses in educational thought. Information is transformed into knowledge, the brain is transformed physically, and learners are transformed into self-directed producers of their own understanding. This presentation will help teachers better understand both their role and the student’s role in these transformation events.

Learning always follows the same biological process involving a physical change in the brain. This change, termed consolidation, is not just limited to long-term memory, but occurs for any part of the learning process. The conscious use of any given functional area of the brain will, therefore, consolidate that part of the learning process. The Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC) proposed by Kolb is a Constructivist model that can has been matched by Zull to the major functional areas of the cerebral cortex to provide insight into the use of teaching strategies. It will be proposed here that each functional area of the brain represents a different learning skill. The development of neglected learning skills through Deliberate Practice (DP) automatically produces self-directed problem solvers by balancing the ELC. Teacher-directed DP spontaneously evolves into learner-determined DP resulting in lifelong maintenance of expert learning skills. As such, this presentation will provide an argument that learning skills can be developed through DP, just as with clinical skills – because clinical skills, after all, are learning skills.

It will be helpful but not essential if attendees visit Dr. Pelley’s website at www.ttuhsc.edu/SOM/success and download the free book, SuccessTypes.

Seminar Archive
September 20, 2012 at 8:00 pm

Adapt, evolve or become extinct: Making educational change work FOR you

Presenter: Rob Carroll

Robert CarrollRobert G. Carroll earned his Ph.D. in 1981 under the direction of Dr. David F. Opdyke at the Department of Physiology of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Newark. Following a 3 year post-doc at University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, MS under the sponsorship of Drs. Thomas E. Lohmeier and Arthur C. Guyton, he moved to East Carolina University in 1984 as an Assistant Professor of Physiology. He is currently Professor of Physiology at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, and holds an administrative appointment as Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs in the Basic Sciences.

Rob is the past chair the Education Committee for the American Physiological Society, and is a member of the Education Committee of the International Union of Physiological Sciences. He is the editor of the journal “Advances in Physiology Education”. In the past, he served on the USMLE Step I Physiology Test Material Development Committee of the National Board of Medical Examiners, and as Secretary for the International Association of Medical Science Educators. In 2002, he was recognized in the inaugural class of Master Educators at the Brody School of Medicine, and received the Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Educator of the Year from the American Physiological Society in 2004. He received the Outstanding Alumni Award from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in 2005, and the Scholar-Teacher Award from East Carolina University in 2007. His three children, however, still question his sanity and judgment.

“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change” – Charles Darwin

The education of students at the preschool through University level is rapidly changing, and instructors who understand the basis of these changes will be most effective educators. Most of the curriculum innovations are developed and supported by research on teaching and learning. This presentation will review the impact of Bloom’s Taxonomy, Knowles’ theory of the Adult Learner, and Kolb’s 4-Stage Learning Cycle on the classroom and curriculum. Assessment of learning is also changing, moving from measuring knowledge (learning objectives) to skills (competencies). In the shift to competencies, today’s mentor must stimulate and monitor the professional development of their students and trainees. In USA, medical residents are assessed by competencies which include Medical Knowledge, Patient Care, Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Ethics and Medical Professionalism, and Systems-Based Practice. In this changing environment, the essential role of the teacher remains unchanged: to create an effective learning environment, to provide direction for the learner, and to model effective learning behaviors.

Seminar Archive
September 27, 2012 at 12:00 am

Novel Assessment Strategies in an Integrated Curriculum

Presenter: Judith Brenner, Samara Ginzburg, & Keith Metzger

Judith Brenner – no bio available

Samara GinzburgSamara Ginzburg, MD is an Associate Dean for Medical Education, and Director of Case-Based Learning at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, as well as Director of Undergraduate Medical Education for the North Shore-LIJ Health System.

Dr. Ginzburg is part of the leadership team at the School of Medicine and thinks critically with others about ways to bring innovations into the curriculum. She works with all the Course Directors to bring the SOM’s philosophies and values into development of the case-based studies, which are a form of problem-based learning that will be used to teach key science concepts and ground students in understanding disease and solving clinical problems. Dr. Ginzburg is also integrating her role in clinical education at the Health System with the developing clinical education for the SOM.

Previously, Dr. Ginzburg was Director of Case-Based Learning for the Department of Medicine’s Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s Education Innovation Project at Long Island Jewish Medical Center. In addition, she was involved in both medical resident education and Endocrine practice.

Dr. Ginzburg received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biopsychology from the University of Michigan, and a Medical Degree from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. She completed a Residency and Chief Residency in Internal Medicine, followed by a fellowship in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Mount Sinai Hospital.

Keith MetzgerKeith Metzger, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Science Education at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. His primary roles at the School of Medicine are in curriculum development and as co-director of the Structure course, which combines the traditionally compartmentalized topics of anatomy, embryology, pathology, histology, clinical imaging and physical diagnosis in a laboratory-based course. Dr. Metzger’s research and scholarly interests are in evaluation of integrating curricula in promoting knowledge application, anatomical sciences education, and use of technology in medical education. Additionally, he conducts basic science research investigating the functional morphology (form-function relationships) and biomechanics of vertebrates, with a focus on the vertebrate feeding system.

He received his Ph.D. in Anatomical Sciences from Stony Brook University.

In this session we will discuss the general scheme of assessment and some of the specific assessment techniques and instruments used to evaluate undergraduate medical students at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. The focus of this system of assessment is to both evaluate traditional medical student competencies as well as the ability of students to apply basic medical knowledge to clinical scenarios and link basic and clinical science. Additionally, our assessments aim to provide meaningful feedback to students in the form of developmental, competency-based milestones.

Topics highlighted in this session will be:

  • Overview of the assessment scheme at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine
  • Use of a regular “Reflection, Integration and Assessment” week to provide opportunities for both summative and formative assessment of students
  • Assessment of higher-order learning in traditional laboratory courses
  • Assesment in Case-Based Learning: Use of self and group assessments in sessions and in weekly follow-up essays
Seminar Archive
October 4, 2012 at 12:00 am

Basic Medical Science Course Directors in Integrated Medical Curricula

Presenter: Cynthia Standley

Cynthia StandleyCynthia A. Standley, Ph.D. received her Doctorate in Physiology from Wayne State University, where she also did her undergraduate training in Biology. She completed her postdoctoral work in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Hutzel Hospital and Wayne State University. Dr. Standley has a wide range of expertise in many disciplines of physiology including neuro-, renal, reproductive, cardiovascular and cellular physiology.

Dr. Standley is currently a Professor in the Department of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix (UACOM-Phoenix). She is an accomplished medical educator with more than 18 years experience teaching physiology to both osteopathic and allopathic medical students. She was formerly among the inaugural faculty at Midwestern University’s Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine (AZCOM) and also an inaugural faculty member at the School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (SOMA) associated with A T. Still University. Her work focuses on constructing and implementing medical school programs that interface basic and clinical sciences, integrating physiology in clinical scenarios with emphasis on student interaction to promote life-long learning.

Dr. Standley organized and chairs the Faculty Development Committee for the College of Medicine-Phoenix and was recently appointed Director of Faculty Development.

In this session we will discuss the creation of an integrated systems block curriculum from the perspective a basic medical scientist. During the first two years of the Phoenix track of the ArizonaMed curriculum, the curriculum is designed in blocks that integrate the traditional basic science disciplines (physiology, anatomy, pathology, etc.) into organ systems and disease units. Clinical content and skills are progressively integrated with basic science subjects. Woven through the blocks are curricular themes covering such topics as behavioral science, ethics and humanism, bioinformatics, population and public health. The following questions will be discussed: 1) What are the challenges for a basic scientist in designing integrated courses? 2) What resources are most helpful? 3) How do you orient a clinician to teaching in the preclinical years? 3) How do you choose your subject matter and prioritize what really needs to be taught? At the end of this session, participants will leave with a bevy of tips to get them started in designing or refining their own curriculum.

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