2018 Meeting Posters – Technology & Innovation

Edgar R. Meyer, Eddie Perkins, Thomas L. Eby, Kenneth Thompson, and Dongmei Cui
The University of Mississippi Medical Center and Millsaps College

PURPOSE: While there are several studies regarding the impact of 3D models on anatomy learning, there are few studies that explore whether virtual 3D stereoscopic models help medical students retain the 3D relationships of anatomical structures. The purpose of this study will be to present to first-year medical students virtual 3D stereoscopic models, with pre-determined validity and inter-rater reliability, of anatomical structures within the middle and inner ear.

METHODS: The impact of these stereoscopic models on medical students’ short- and long-term retention of 3D relationships of anatomical structures will be determined in a counterbalanced fashion using two learning modalities: computer virtual 3D and stereoscopic virtual 3D. The students will be administered tests before and after each of these learning experiences: pre-3D, post-3D, and long-term post-3D tests. These students will complete a mental rotation test (MRT) to determine their spatial abilities. In addition, students will be administered initial and follow-up surveys assessing their perceived and actual retention of 3D relationships, respectively, from 3D learning.

RESULTS: Comparisons of all test results between groups will be analyzed using statistical analyses. Final results will determine whether virtual 3D stereoscopic middle and inner ear models improve medical students’ short- and long-term retention of 3D relationships.

CONCLUSION: The use of technology for displaying virtual 3D stereoscopic models can aid in supplementing medical students’ learning of anatomy. Future studies should address the effectiveness of stereoscopic imaging of other complex anatomical structures on graduate and medical students’ and residents’ retention of 3D anatomical relationships.

Fred Dee, Thomas Haugen, Clarence kreiter, Nathan Lothamer, and Kristi Ferguson
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine

PURPOSE: After successfully implementing Mechanistic Case Diagrams (MCD) in the Iowa Carver College of Medicine pre-clinical curriculum, we are implementing MCDs in the clinical year rotations as a means of integrating basic medical science mechanisms with clinical knowledge.

METHODS: MCD are flow diagrams that have some similarities to concept maps, except that in MCDs the text items and arrow connections focus only on risk factors, etiology, and pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms at play in the development of a specific patient’s signs, symptoms and test result. We have made enhancements to MCDs as originally described by Guerrero in 2001, including use of pre-determined lists, and electronic generation of diagrams, scoring, and feedback to students.

In 2017, we implemented 4 MCDs as semi-high-stakes assessment for 80 students at the end of their core rotations in Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, and Ob/Gyn. Coincident with 4 classical simulated patient stations, students have a fifth 25 minute “science” station which includes an electronic clinical case (similar to one of the simulated patient stations) followed by an MCD exercise for that electronic case.  After students submit their MCD, they receive feedback on their diagram including the proportion of links they identified correctly compared to a consensus diagram created by two faculty experts and a set of volunteer senior students.

RESULTS: Enhancements to MCDs have resulted in faster diagram creation (~10 minutes for students), and increased acceptance. Performance statistics for the 4 MCDs are encouraging with respect to: agreement with consensus (~mean 60-70%; range 25-100%), mean discrimination of individual arrow connections with diagram score (range .15 to .34 per case) and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha range .23 to .77).

CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of MCDs in the clinical years is an efficient and reliable way to integrate medical science assessment and feedback, including integration with simulated patient stations.

Poster Award Nominee:
Elisabeth Schlegel and Li Ma
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell

PURPOSE: Expert science teaching, learning facilitation and innovative curriculum planning are core responsibilities of basic science faculty joining medical schools. However, faculty development programs are oftentimes not coordinated with new responsibilities. Grounded in the principles of workplace learning, providing comprehensive guidance in the academic environment is key to professional success. The purpose of this innovation is illustrating how navigation and exposure to curricular landscape, and pedagogic methods combined with acquiring new educational skills, can be accomplished in a step-by-step fashion.

METHODS: This innovation was developed for joining basic science faculty. The road map to support faculty in their new roles includes seven steps, (1) Exploration of curriculum, (2) Review of pedagogies, (3) Locating curricular content, (4) Adjustment of content, (5) Developing sessions, (6) Active Instruction, and (7) Feedback, reflection, and advancement. These steps function as individual developmental milestones for new faculty to visualize their faculty roles within the culture in their school of medicine.

RESULTS: The targeted outcome of this intervention was reduced transition time for new joining faculty. The impact of this program is evident in new faculty able to identify multiple responsibilities, challenging demands originating from different institutional levels, and to embark on their responsibilities with confidence and a greater understanding of their expectations. Outcomes include a streamlined individualized faculty development process in an organized fashion for the benefit of faculty and institution.

CONCLUSION: Traditional faculty development as collection of educational interventions is oftentimes not synchronized with institutional needs. A step-by-step process can align educational methods with curricular threads. This individualized approach using multiple stakeholders supports a systematized transition into a new role, and lessons learned include ongoing cross-institutional communication for informing both institutional and faculty roles. Expanding the roadmap to clinical teaching faculty will allow additional generalization. Improvements will be reported based on faculty feedback.

Jeffrey Fahl, Neil Haycocks, and Edward Simanton
UNLV School of Medicine

PURPOSE: The advent of integrated organ-system learning, along with limits on required class time, have made it increasingly difficult to deliver the standardized cadaveric anatomy course. Yet the quantity and detail of gross anatomy has not decreased, and is as important today as ever. While some schools have started using virtual cadavers as an adjunct to human anatomy teaching, we elected to move to a totally virtual model for teaching gross anatomy and histology.

METHODS: Approximately 70 curricular hours are devoted to the study of human anatomy and histology. Anatomy is taught in 5 blocks distributed through the foundations phase of the curriculum. Students review the readings before class and work in groups of six, teaching themselves anatomy using a guided lesson plan developed for the SECTRA virtual anatomy tables. Radiology is presented during each laboratory experience by a radiologist. In a similar fashion, histology is taught using these tables as a microscope for small group discussion. Students are assessed biweekly with exams built from National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) questions and by focus groups.

RESULTS: Our evaluations show that the students adapt quickly to the small group teaching methods and that the testing by NBME questions and satisfaction surveys are positive for this approach. The faculty time spent developing the course materials in advance allows for in-depth small group discussions during laboratory hours and greater teaching satisfaction.

CONCLUSION: The classic approaches of small groups, self-learning, prosection, contextual learning, self-evaluation, radiological integration and repetition throughout the entire medical school curriculum remain the basis for education. The salient difference is that the virtual cadaver replaces a physical cadaver. The students adapt well to this method, and demonstrate building of knowledge and their retention of the knowledge.

Linda R Adksion and Srinath K Weerasena
Trinity School of Medicine, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies

PURPOSE: An accreditation process requires significant documentation to support an application and typically exceeds hundreds or thousands of pages.  For several years, schools have submitted material on a USB drive or shipped boxes of printed copies and provided additional copies of collated material on-site.  The purpose of this project was to develop a secure online portal system comprised of an extranet and intranet for an accreditation application that provided access to the visiting team of most materials in advance.  The intranet was available on-campus for the team to view all confidential materials.

METHODS: The site was created using virtualization technologies and a content management system for easily cloning of the intranet/extranet and for subsequent revisions. The content management system was installed using Web Services, Server-side scripting and Relational Database engine as base-line technologies.  An SSL certificate was used to encrypt the extranet and intranet site access. The intranet was cloned from the extranet, built first, with the content updated.  As cloned systems, extranet/intranet sites required a single set of credentials for user access.

RESULTS: Development of the extranet and intranet sites required one person in the Information Technology Department and took approximately 2 weeks; the intranet required less time.  Uploading the documents occurred seamlessly at the time of submission.  Advantages of this process included timely updates and corrections to data, access to all documents prior to a visit, and the ability to archive the sites.

CONCLUSIONS: This process is amenable to several platforms for schools and organizations.  Sites can be cloned for reapplication with documents updated from master files or for other submissions requiring some but not all of the information.

807 – Augmented Reality Anatomy using Microsoft HoloLens and Cadaveric Dissections: A Comparative Effectiveness Study
Martina Stojanovska, Galen Tingle, Lauren Ulrey, Lisa Tan, Sajjaad Ahmed Ali, Catherine SImonson, Jeffrey Mlakar, Henry Eastman, Robert Gotschall, Alexander Boscia, Karin Herrmann, Rebecca Enterline, Erin Henninger, Mark Griswold, Barbara Freeman, Scott Simpson, and Susanne Wish-Baratz
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Interactive Commons, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Microsoft HoloLens, a novel augmented reality technology, as compared to conventional cadaveric dissection in learning musculoskeletal anatomy.

Methods: Thirty-one students were divided into two groups.  Initially fifteen students learned the upper-limb in HoloLens while the others studied in the conventional dissection lab in three 2-hour lab sessions (6 hrs). In the second three sessions, the groups switched for the lower-limb. These participants had 24/7 access to both labs. HoloLens usage was automatically recorded. After these six sessions, all students completed two, 50-minute practical exams, one in the cadaver lab and one in HoloLens. Another group of 33 volunteers who had never experienced HoloLens also took both exams.

Outcomes: Sixty-four students completed both exams on the same day. A significant correlation (r=0.74, p<0.001) was observed between the scores in HoloLens and the cadaver lab. No significant differences in average scores were seen between the exams in HoloLens compared to the cadaver lab (74.2+/-13 vs 73.6+/-12). When analyzed by subgroup, the only significant difference observed was a lower average score on the cadaver exam for those students who learned the material in HoloLens (70.3+/-13 vs 77.0+/-13, p<0.01), however this difference was biased by scores at the lower end of the range. No statistical difference was observed between the exams in HoloLens whether the students studied in HoloLens or in the cadaver lab (74.0+/-13 vs 74.5+/-13). Students spent substantially less time on all HoloLens activity, required and independent study, when compared to only required cadaveric dissection time (3.6 vs 6 hrs).

Conclusions: HoloLens provides an effective and efficient tool for anatomy learning. We firmly believe that HoloLens can play an important role in the education of medical students even at this early stage of implementation.

808 – A Web-Based Student Self-Assessment Framework: Construction, Use & Student Attitudes
Richard R. Lindquist
University Of Connecticut School of Medicine

PURPOSE: Self assessment, not to be confused it with self grading or self marking, is the process used to evaluates ones own knowledge against feedback from an established standard. Successful self assessment determines the path of future self learning by enhancing learning and especially favoring deep learning over surface learning (Boud, Enhancing Learning Through Self Assessment 1995)

The purpose of this work was to provide a web based self-assessment framework for histology.

METHODS: Open source Apache web server, MySQL database and PHP in a Windows environment were used to create the self assessment framework.

Using the student interface, randomized questions from the learning objects are selected and from a list of possible answers learners select an answer by pushing one of the radio buttons. If the answer is incorrect learner has the opportunity to try again. When learner moves to the next question, learner answer, faculty answer & student identity tag are inserted into database, which is time stamped.

On completion, the student is presented with summary of his/her answers , faculty answers & time devoted to each question, and given the opportunity to review.

RESULTS: One hundred eleven (111) of 125 students used the self-assessment framework for a total of 28,196 individual self-assessments with a median of 190. Fifty eight (58) students on Likert based survey (5, highest) found the framework directed their learning (4 + 1.18 ); helpful in preparing for exam (4.6 + 0.77); and believed the framework improved their performance on the exam (4.4 + 0.95).

CONCLUSION: The high student usage and Likert result indicate a success for the framework. Faculty too can benefit for data can reveal what concepts are proving difficult for students so that teaching can better address these learning objectives

809 – The Effect of Flipped Classroom Media Resources on Peer Instruction in the Gross Anatomy Learning Experience
Seddrick B. Weekes, Chloe C. Read, Sarah E. Ngueyn, Amanda Nielson, Gavin Butler, Bryson Moeller, Laruen Morris, Ashely Winterbottom, and Jonathan J. Wisco
Brigham Young University

Purpose: The flipped classroom model creates an engaging environment for peer teaching interactions. Students generally have a positive perception of the scope and quality of digital resources available to help them prepare for the classroom environment, but little review is available regarding their effectiveness in helping students become competent peer instructors. We examined qualitative and quantitative survey response data from Human Anatomy pre-professional students at Brigham Young University (BYU) to determine if and how media resources influenced students’ ability and effectiveness as peer instructors.

Methods: Students were surveyed in the Fall 2016 – Winter 2017 courses. IRB approved surveys were administered twice, distributed once after the course mid-term exam, and once just prior to the course final exam. Surveys were distributed using Qualtrics software and included both Likert and free response questions to determine the impact of media resources on peer instruction. Free response data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, beginning with constructing a word cloud to reveal the most frequent words used in responses that informed subsequent detailed thematic qualitative analysis. Likert data were expressed as percentage of respondents.

Results: We obtained 2,452 student responses (99.84% response rate) and analyzed both qualitative quantitative data. Themes of student perception of media resource value included the following: media resource usage (particularly with video media) helped reinforce principles from course material; viewing media resources before classroom experiences increased confidence in working with other students during peer engagements. Quantitative analysis affirmed this with 68.49% of respondents agreeing that media usage improved the quality of their peer instruction, 25.71% neutral, and 5.8% disagreeing. Paired responses for individuals were in agreement between the two surveys.

Conclusion: Media resources are a helpful resource for flipped classroom pedagogy, but more so, can be a tool to enhance the confidence of students in peer instruction settings.

810 – A musculoskeletal ultrasound session to enhance first year medical student education
Samantha A. King, Mark J. Conroy, David P. Bahner, and Laura C. Boucher
The Ohio State University College of Medicine

PURPOSE: New physicians often struggle with musculoskeletal complaints following medical school. Ultrasound is increasingly utilized in both undergraduate and graduate medical education and can improve physical exam skills. The following details the creation and implementation of an extracurricular musculoskeletal ultrasound session for first year medical students.

METHODS: A voluntary session for first year medical students was offered during their musculoskeletal block. Students were asked by email to review introductory presentations focused on ultrasound basics and use in musculoskeletal exams. Two-hour sessions were held with 15-25 students each. Faculty, residents, and upper level students were recruited to be models and proctors. Proctors were provided with educational objectives for the session and a guide for how best to facilitate learning prior to their involvement. Students were split into small groups and provided a worksheet of topics, an ultrasound machine, student model, and proctor for each group. Residents, attendings, and anatomists were available to answer questions and guide participation, while avoiding any direct scanning.

RESULTS: A total of 58 students participated across the 3 sessions. Each student was provided with a checklist identifying recommended learning objectives for the session. These objectives encompassed ultrasound basics as well as musculoskeletal anatomy and pathophysiology across the three major joints they were able to scan. Students could use the forms as a guide or investigate each joint in any way they were interested.

CONCLUSION: Each session was well received and reflects the popularity of ultrasound education within first year medical students. Based on comments, the hands on experience was appreciated and interest exists to incorporate ultrasound in the curriculum. We intend to explore ways to improve participation and deliver the pre-session content in a higher yield format. Potential exists for collecting objective data before and after these sessions to evaluate the impact of ultrasound on the students learning.

811 – Is Internet Addiction associated with depression? A study on Premedical Post-Baccalaureate Student Population.
Anamika Senpupta and Lawrence Brako
University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine and Morehouse School of Medicine

Background: In the United States and Europe, the prevalence range of Internet addiction disorder (IAD) lies between 1.5-8.2%. While countries like China and South Korea have identified Internet addiction as a significant threat to public health, the designation of Internet addiction as a mental disorder in the United States is still under debate. In our recent study (accepted for publication)  we confirmed the presence of a significant negative association between Internet addiction and academic performance in premedical post-baccalaureate students. The  study suggested the presence of a  positive association between Internet addiction and students’ self-reported depression at the preliminary level. Existing literature  lends strong support to the fact that Internet addicts are at greater risks of mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, hostility.  Motivated by the above, The current study intends to  explore in-depth the association between Internet addiction and depression.

Methods: Our subjects were students enrolled in a medical school preparatory program “Medical Education Readiness Program” of Adtalem Global Education. Young\\\’s  standard 21 item Internet addiction test (IAT)  was used for screening of Internet addiction   and the well-established Goldberg depression scale was used to screening of  depression. Regression analysis, and Pearson’s correlation were used to explore the associations between the different variables.

Results: Our data reconfirmed a positive association between Internet addiction and depression in the premedical post-baccalaureate student cohort (n=86). A significant percentage of  students identified as Internet addicts were positive for depression. A small percentage of the normal Internet users were likewise found to be depressed. It is important to note that the Internet addicted students with depression demonstrated low academic performance in the program.  The results however did not answer the intriguing  question \\\”Does Internet addiction lead to depression or that pre-existing clinical depression in students makes them more vulnerable to Internet addiction\\\”?

Chutima Phongphua and David Skyba
Touro University Nevada

PURPOSE: Many medical schools are transitioning to use of virtual microscopy (VM) for undergraduate medical histology and histopathology training. The initial investment of time and money relating to development of requisite information technology (IT) infrastructure and digital media can be substantial. We recently utilized a commercial hosting solution to rapidly implement VM training at our university. Student perceptions regarding this approach for histology training are reported.

METHODS: At the end of the first year of medical school, students were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire regarding their VM-based histology laboratory training. The questionnaire contained Likert-scale questions addressing student attitudes regarding use of VM as an instructional tool in general and the specific implementation utilized in their training. Students were also given the opportunity to provide open-ended comments.

RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one students completed the questionnaire. Thirty-seven percent of the students had previous histology training utilizing optical microscopy. Students generally found VM to be convenient and enjoyable to use. They also perceived the instructor-guided VM laboratory experience to be highly valuable for reinforcing lecture material and preparing for future courses and licensing exams.

CONCLUSIONS: Use of commercial hosting services is a practical and effective approach for implementation of VM training in an educational setting. This solution may be desirable in situations where there are significant time constraints and/or limited support for IT infrastructure development.

Laurel Gorman, Andrea Berry, and Mariana Dangiolo
Dept Medical Education, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Dept Faculty Affairs, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Dept Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

PURPOSE: Geriatric prescribing is complex and requires integrating basic and clinical pharmacology, but few studies have addressed the best approaches to integrate geriatric pharmacotherapy teaching. Due to high numbers of geriatric medication errors, the AAMC has developed geriatric prescribing competencies for learners to master upon graduating medical school.  At our institution, a fourth year (M4) case-based geriatric elective was developed, and electronic interactive tools were designed covering principles, practical therapeutics, and geriatric prescribing resource utilization. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if these educational innovations improved knowledge and/or competency in conducting a geriatric medication review.

METHODS: Prior to getting educational tools, geriatric pharmacology baseline knowledge and perceptions were measured in 9 M4 students selecting the elective.  Knowledge was measured by a quiz and their performance in writing medication reviews for a computer-based geriatric case.  To assess geriatric medication review competency, a Likert-anchored rubric (1=poor – 5=excellent) was designed to evaluate medication reviews to rate competency on AAMC geriatric prescribing criteria.   Upon completing initial activities, learners then used educational self-learning modules (SLM) that included interactive exercises, formative activities, and the distribution of specific geriatric prescribing resources.  After utilizing tools, learners completed a 2nd medication review on a different geriatric case, and geriatric knowledge and perceptions were measured post-intervention using different, equivalent questions.

RESULTS: Pre and post-quiz analysis showed significant increases in geriatric pharmacology knowledge.  Competency on the geriatric medication review improved from a pre-intervention moderate rating to a post-intervention excellent on most rubric criteria.  Learners evaluated the tools highly in surveys for convenience, quality, and improving geriatric prescribing and patient safety awareness.

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data support that learners utilized our educational innovations, and their knowledge of geriatric pharmacotherapy and competency in writing a medication review improved. Learners valued the tools highly, reporting that the exercises changed their attitudes toward geriatric prescribing.

814 – The PM&R Purple Book – A clinical reference guide for the rehabilitation M4 clerkship
Angela Vuong and John Norbury
Brody School of Medicine

PURPOSE: The Brody School of Medicine is one of less than 10 medical schools with a required Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R) Clerkship. Previous research has shown reference guides enhance student learning in the clinical setting, however, a good medical student level PM&R pocket guide is lacking. The goal of this project was to develop a concise reference booklet for medical students in the PM&R Clerkship.

Methods: A pocket-sized clinical reference guide, named the “Purple Book,” was developed, printed, and given to students in the M4 PM&R clerkship. This resource included information on the musculoskeletal and neurological systems, such as key elements of physical exams, images of nerve distribution, and musculoskeletal diagrams.

Results: Each “Purple Book” contains an assessment for students to complete regarding the usefulness of the reference. Positive feedback from 44 students has indicated the utility of this pocket guide, and includes comments such as “high yield,” “well-organized,” and “concise.” Students also rated statements regarding value, layout/design, usefulness, legibility, and readability of the book. With 5 as the best score possible, each statement had an average rating of 4.3 or greater.

Conclusions: Having a succinct, printed guide that can be easily referenced by medical students significantly reinforces the application of musculoskeletal and neurological knowledge in a clinical setting. By focusing on information that is pertinent in more than just the rehabilitation setting and providing a resource in a format familiar to medical students, the educational experience of students in the required 4th year PM&R clerkship can be maximized. The positive feedback from students shows that in a progressively digital world, there remains a role for a physical pocket-sized book in undergraduate clinical education. Additionally, important characteristics to consider when producing a pocket guide include font size, image resolution, and spacing in order to ensure maximal readability.

815 – Impacting Our Health Professions Education Community through a Virtual Medical Education Journal Club
Saori Wendy Herman, Alice Fornari, and Cicy George
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell and Northwell Health

PURPOSE: To bridge institutional geographical barriers for a large health organization, enhance interdisciplinary and inter-professional discussion and collaboration, and provide opportunities for continuing medical education (CME) and faculty development, a monthly virtual synchronous medical education journal club was created for all health profession educators. This poster will discuss the creation, implementation, and assessment of this journal club since April 2015.

METHODS: The medical education journal club meets once a month via GoToWebinar. A faculty member or leader is invited to select a medical education theme and discuss two research articles. The Assistant Vice President of Faculty Development facilitates the discussion, and a medical librarian discusses study limitations and bibliometrics (traditional & alternative). Formative data was collected from a survey distributed to all participants at the end of each session.

RESULTS: There were a total of 343 interdisciplinary and interprofessional participants over the 20 sessions conducted between April 2015 and October 2017. The types of articles reviewed, spanned a range of medical education topics such as diversity, simulation, unprofessional behavior, feedback, and burnout. The survey respondents (n=155) self-reported that the program met its learning objectives. 55% of respondents intended to make changes in their clinical and/or educational environment as a result of the sessions. 98% of respondents reported that their overall knowledge/skill level changed positively.

CONCLUSION: The positive data retrieved from the surveys as well as the steady number of participants are indicators of success. The professional development activity provides a valuable opportunity to address current themes relevant to continuing professional development of all health profession educators. This educational opportunity advances a culture of clinician-as-educator in a large academic health organization. Our future efforts need to focus on increasing post session survey responses from participants and using social media to promote this innovation post event.

817 – Narrative perspective and reflective writing: A Longitudinal MS4 Elective in Health Humanities
Alice Fornari
Zucker SOM at Hofstra/Northwell

PURPOSE: Two significant challenges facing medical education are the decrease in student empathy and increase in burnout over the course of medical school. Students need skills to maintain their ability to connect with patients and other health professionals, while also taking care of themselves. The Health Humanities address these challenges by focusing on the ways we absorb, interpret, and respond to stories in literature and other forms of art, offering a model focused on physicians’ relationships with their patients, colleagues, society, and themselves. Our goal is to share the experience of offering a longitudinal elective and offer a model for creating curricular specific to health humanities.

METHODS: A longitudinal (July-March) MS4 elective allows protected space and time in the curriculum for students to explore health humanities and connect their professional experiences with patients and health professionals using narrative writing and reflective practice. This elective was placed in MS4 year to align with other required rotations and interviews for residency. Faculty were recruited who expressed interest in health humanities and narrative writing. Logistics and content for optimum design and implementation will be described.

RESULTS: Assessment includes students and faculty data. As the elective is in progress, all data will be collated/analyzed to report.

  • Pre/post student data aggregated: Maslach Burnout Inventory scores and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale.
  • Student feedback
  • Faculty feedback

CONCLUSION: The purpose of this elective is to develop students’ capacities for continuous reflection and self-regulation through the lens of health humanities. Medical students who self-select to participate in a elective benefit from the content presented and the small group experience with peers and faculty. We anticipate students will continue to pursue this type of learning in their future and seek guidance to integrate Health Humanities into future learning environments they engage in as physicians.