2018 Meeting Posters – E-Learning

Ali Alkhawaji, Gary V Allen, Akram Jaffar, and Thejodhar Pulakunta
Dalhousie University and KSAU-HS

PURPOSE: Whether F2F or recorded, didactic lectures have been the cornerstone of introductory anatomy education. The integration of educational technology, however, has posed a change in the model of learner engagement. Students were surveyed for perceptions and learning styles to interpret deterioration of lecture attendance observed after having recorded lectures available.

METHODS: Using a learning management system (BrightSpace) and an online study supplement (WileyPlus), the introductory anatomy course is taught with a one-hour didactic lecture delivered thrice weekly, totaling 34 hours. All course information and content is available online on BrightSpace, which is also used for instructional communication. WileyPlus provides a combination of interactive multimedia resources and weekly assignments that provide immediate feedback, serving as self-assessment modules throughout the course. Moreover, the course instructor recorded and uploaded the course lectures on BrightSpace to enable a more student-centered learning. Subsequently, deterioration of lecture attendance was observed steadily with course progression. Students were surveyed using a web-based mixed-method survey instrument to interpret this deterioration.

RESULTS: In total, 199 student responses were obtained and analyzed. 59.9 % of the total responses indicated that the ability to resource information and learn anatomy independently allowed students to skip lectures with or without excuses. While 51.7% disagreed, only 24.1% of the responses indicated that interaction with classmates was necessary to understand the course content. 24.6% of the total responses reported that they never interacted with classmates. Students indicated that the course provided engaging learning opportunities; the use of recorded lectures and weekly assignments emerged as major themes. 92% of the total responses indicated that weekly assignments were helpful to stay engaged with course content and progression.

CONCLUSION: Student behavioral non-engagement, manifesting through withdrawal from lecture attendance is attributed to student ability to learn independently. Online weekly assignments and recorded lectures promoted cognitive engagement through “flexible” student-centered learning.

Poster Award Nominee:
Grant Pham, Dale Quest, and Dolgor Baatar
Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso

PURPOSE: Spaced learning means studying at intervals, and in contrast to cramming, seems to enhance knowledge retention. Electronic software applications are available for medical students to utilize that approach. Our aim was to determine if spaced learning modules administered via the free-to-use Cerego™ online learning platform might improve performance on pharmacology questions in the Scientific Principles of Medicine course unit summative exam.

METHODS: Medical students were recruited from the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine first-year Class of 2020. The integumentary-musculoskeletal-peripheral nervous system (IMN) unit immediately preceded the cardiovascular-respiratory (CVR) unit. No Cerego™ self-test modules were created for IMN unit pharmacology sessions. Teaching materials for each of 7 CVR unit pharmacology sessions were used to generate 7 Cerego™ self-test modules, each containing 10-45 questions approved by a faculty member, then made available to students on the Cerego™ learning platform. Cerego™ logs student attempts, time to complete a module, and an index of perceived difficulty. Subjects had unlimited access to Cerego™ while preparing for the CVR exam.

RESULTS: One-way ANOVA showed students performed better on the ten pharmacology multiple-choice questions on the CVR summative examination than they did on the eight multiple-choice questions on the IMN summative examination. Linear regression analysis showed no significant dependence of students’ performance on CVR summative exam pharmacology questions on scores averaged for all seven Cerego™ sets (R2: 0.0057).

CONCLUSION: The results of this study question the potential for use of Cerego™ sets to enhance retention of pharmacology content. Similar projects showed Cerego™ sets improved anatomy and micro summative scores. The disparate results of these studies provide impetus to see whether using Cerego™ helps students improve knowledge retention and exam performance in behavioral science, biochemistry, genetics, histology, immunology, neuroscience, pathology and physiology.

303 – Making Medicines: Outcomes of an industry Academia Online Course
Elizabeth McClain and Yolanda Mary Johnson-Moton
William Carey University College of Osteopathic Medicine and Eli Lilly and Company

PURPOSE: Literature has noted need for educated health professionals in the workforce to address the evolution of drug development and clinical research. “Making Medicines” a 7-module online course, a collaborative academia-industry inter-professional partnership was developed to teach health professions students the drug discovery process. The goal of this project was to assess impact and effectiveness of the online course.

METHODS: A non-experimental design assessed the “Making Medicines” course. A knowledge-based 10-item multiple-choice test measured academic change in knowledge pre-post. A -12-item subjective survey, with items 1-11 using standard 4 point Likert scale; item 12 item assessed perception of change with pharmaceutical industry.

RESULTS: 786 students across multiple professional programs enrolled. 599 completed, providing a 76% completion rate. Pre-post mean differences assessed N=599 on the 11 item knowledge based course assessment. Pre-post mean scores were 66% and 85% respectively. Course satisfaction results rated content as challenging, valuable, had utility and improved knowledge of the drug development process. Self-reported participant change perception included 40.13% continued positive perceptions; 45.44% neutral perceptions; 11% (n=65) reported negative to positive perceptions. 2.3% reported consistent negative perceptions and less than 1% (n=5) reported change from positive to negative.

CONCLUSION: A 19% mean knowledge improvement pre-post performance, demonstrated a significance increase. Over 85% of participants reported continued positive or neutral perceptions of pharmaceutical industry. A positive impact was noted in over 11% reporting negative to positive perception change. Attitudes are challenging to change. Only 3.3% reported consistent negative or positive to negative change in perceptions. Results demonstrate increased knowledge and suggest exposure to education in drug development may increase positive perceptions of the pharmaceutical industry for students in the health professions. Outcomes demonstrate effectiveness of academic industry interprofessional engagement in academic resource provision.

Poster Award Nominee:
Jeffery D. Fritz, Robert W. Treat, William J. Hueston, and Roy M. Long
Medical College of Wisconsin, Central Wisconsin campus and Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee campus

PURPOSE: The MCW-Central Wisconsin campus matriculated its first class during academic year 2016-2017. Basic science course materials were delivered using a computer learning platform to house lecture slides and lecture notes. Lectures were delivered to campus by: live video in which students could attend via a real-time video feed with the opportunity to directly ask questions to the presenter; live-stream video off site; or recorded videos view-able at the time and place of their choice. During the second semester of the inaugural year, we investigated video usage by students in two of three basic science courses to better understand student lecture preference and outcomes.

METHODS: In 2016/17, medical students completed these self-reported surveys: 28-item Interpersonal Reactivity Index for perspective taking and 56-item Schwartz’s Values Survey. Step-wise multivariate linear regressions used for predicting outcomes of dispositional empathy and human values. Independent t-tests and Cohen’s d effect size compared mean scores differences in outcomes. IBM® SPSS® 24.0 generated statistical analysis. This research was approved by the institution’s IRB.

RESULTS: Live video lecture attendance averaged 45% in both courses throughout the duration of the study. Students tended to self-select into one of two groups – live video lecture viewing (termed live streamers) or recorded video lecture viewing (termed recorded viewers). Comparing MCAT scores at matriculation, and course exam performance showed no statistical difference between live streamers and recorded viewers. Final course cumulative student score distributions suggest live streamers performance trended higher but was not statistically significant. Comparisons with regard to basic human values inventories reported significant differences and large effect sizes in the values of conformity and benevolence as well as perspective taking. Other human values reported no significant difference but had moderate effect sizes.

CONCLUSIONS: While overall learner performance is not dependent upon lecture preferences, basic human values may play a role in student learning format preferences.

305 – Evaluating Medical Student Self-Directed Learning Through the “Draw It to Know It” Visual-Based Educational Software
Roy M Long, Robert Treat, Johnathon Neist, Diane M. Wilke-Zemanovic, Beth B. Krippendorf, and Jeffery D. Fritz
Medical College of Wisconsin-Central Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

PURPOSE: The curriculum at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) includes elements of didactic lecture and active learning. The latter is composed of labs, group discussions, and more recently, self-directed learning. In alignment with LCME accreditation standard 6.3, MCW is documenting when M1 and M2 students self-direct their learning of the basic sciences, and this requires an evaluation of educational tools of their choosing.

This study examines the effects of the educational software Draw It to Know It® (DITKI) on medical student basic science examination performance.

METHODS: DITKI is a web based platform (https://www.drawittoknowit.com) designed to facilitate learning by having students draw a basic science concept while it is being presented. DITKI is subdivided into basic science disciplines analogous to the M1-MCW curriculum and integrated systems analogous to the M2-MCW curriculum. All M1/M2 students were provided access to DITKI through a learning resources grant provided by MCW-Academic Affairs. Students were encouraged via an e-mail and a LMS News item to use the DITKI platform for their own educational needs. Examination scores will be compared between students who used and did not use DITKI via independent t-tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes using IBM® SPSS® 24.0. This study was approved by the institution’s IRB.

RESULTS: As the first term of a two-year study is concluding, initial data show students self-registering (<25% of M1 students) and participating in the program by viewing videos, taking quizzes, and drawing pictures all within the platform. The experimentation with these optional modules are one early sign of students successfully directing their own learning.

CONCLUSIONS: Medical students independent use of the DITKI platform suggests that some students utilize visual learning tools to assist their understanding of important basic science concepts. As examination scores are processed, efficacy of the DITKI program will be viewed beyond self-directed usage.

306 – Using Facebook for Ongoing Learning Builds Self-discipline and Contributes to National Licensing Exam Success
Sophapun Ekarattanawong, Pholasit Chamod, Amornnat Thuppia, Nakorn Mathuradavong, Pattharawin Pattharanitima, Kornkarn Bhamarapravatana, and Mohammed Meziani
Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Thailand., Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Thailand, and School of Health Professions Education. Faculty of Medicine and Life sciences. Maastricht University, Netherlands

Objective: This study proposes the Facebook page usage as a vehicle to motivate ongoing learning of the block subject in Problem-Based Learning curriculum. The level of Facebook page engagement should be builds self-discipline and correlated with their National Licensing Examination step1 (NLE1) success.

Methods: The scenarios and exercises were posted on Facebook page every 2 months after the block was finished for ongoing learning. The participants completed questionnaires after NLE1 results were obtained. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the frequency of Facebook page usage. The mean of opinion scores of each group were compared using one-way ANOVA. The correlation coefficient of the percentage of NLE1 success and the number of their participation was calculated.

Result: The most students spent longer than 3 months preparing for NLE1. The most popular tool was MCQ bank. Average opinion score of each group who used the Facebook page showed no significant difference in the opinion that Facebook page could stimulate ongoing learning for NLE1 preparation. The “often” users significantly preferred group-based self-study and group discussion method compared to “never” users (p < 0.05). Strong positive correlation (r = 0.956) between the frequency of Facebook page usage and the success rate of NLE1 was shown.

Conclusion:  Facebook page was an effective tool for encouraging ongoing learning of 2nd year content had a contribution for the NLE1 success in the 3rd year. The student who used Facebook Page for ongoing learning showed a strong self-discipline habit which correlated to NLE1 exam success.

W. Brady Little
Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine

PURPOSE: In effort to supplement traditional anatomy education and harness the teaching advantages of new technology, a Virtual Interactive Three-dimensional (3D), Touch screen, Anatomy laboratory (APEX) table is being developed at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM). This study was designed to utilize student deliberate practice in development of a prototype virtual anatomy table and measure student opinion of the educational tool.

METHODS: Eight student research assistants were employed who had successfully completed both of the RUSVM gross anatomy courses with a grade of 80% or higher. Results were assessed via quantitative student outcomes and qualitative perception of the APEX table gathered by online surveys.

RESULTS: The efforts of student research assistants provided a substantial benefit in development of the APEX table by critiquing 306 virtual anatomic structures, and accumulating an overall accuracy rating of 3.73 on a 4 point scale. Student perception of their involvement with this educational tool was overwhelmingly positive. Participants reported their experience as enjoyable (median 4 on a 5 point Likert scale) and indicated that it benefited their knowledge of veterinary anatomy (median 4).

CONCLUSION: The use of veterinary student deliberate practice offers a novel and valuable resource in identifying, labeling and describing the anatomic imprecisions of a rudimentary canine gross anatomy educational software. Virtual simulation offers an ethical, safe and novel method of teaching veterinary gross anatomy.

Stephen Germana and Mary O. Dereski
Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine

PURPOSE: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 individuals in the general population. This prevalence indicates that the majority of medical students will encounter an ASD patient in his/her future practice. The current study’s goal is to determine if engaging in an ASD-focused online module will increase medical students’ ASD awareness and influence consideration of appropriate accommodations for these patients when entering clinical practice.

METHODS: The Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine’s first and second year classes were asked to participate in this research study in 2016. The students were sent a link to an online module tailored to cover ASD information and address potential accommodations designed to improve the healthcare experience for young adults as they transition from their pediatrician into an adult healthcare setting. The module contained a pre-test, interactive educational module, and a post-test of knowledge and awareness. The students also provided qualitative feedback on perceived challenges to instituting suggested accommodations. A paired t-test was utilized for pre- and post-test analysis. The qualitative responses were reviewed for recurring themes.

RESULTS: There was a significant increase (p<.0001) in post-test scores following completion of the online module (n=44). The qualitative feedback indicated concern regarding: lack of clinical staff training; space, resources, time and ability for advanced preparation; and reaction of other patients regarding special accommodations for this group.

CONCLUSION: The ability to increase medical student knowledge and awareness regarding ASD and potential special needs of young adult patients can be addressed through an online module. Addressing understanding of young adults with ASD is relevant and timely, as a significant number of individuals in this population are approaching the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare. However, challenges remain regarding incorporation of appropriate accommodations into clinical practice.