Yurii V. Gorbunov

Dean of General Faculty

Izhevsk State Medical Institute

The recent visit of Dr. Roger W. Koment to medical schools in Russia has become an important step towards removing the obstacles which~ have existed in sharing information between our countries. We are very pleased that Dr. Koment kindly offers us the opportunity to share with you the system of medical education in Russia. Although the following information is quite superficial, it might provide an index to the present status of the education in medical sciences in Russia. We hope that our future collabo?ration in sharing information about our systems of education will help us to find more effective ways of teaching in medical schools. We understand that it is impossible to find one universal way of teaching that would satisfy both students and faculty of different countries. The success of teaching for different medical schools is based mainly on their ability to fully use already existing ways of teaching and their combinations to reach the maximum effect.

The state system of medical education in Russia includes several stages. The post-high medical edu?cation is controlled by the Department of Post-High
Education of Russia, and the health system is controlled by Ministry of Health System of Russia~ Our way is six years of required training, plus one year of internship, after which the Ministry of Health System is also responsible for granting permission for medical practice. Post-high medical education is available for students of medical institutes and medical schools of our universities. Students are taught according to programs which are authorized by the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health System of Russia.

Our system of medical education is specialized from the outset, with students selecting, upon entry, to study Dental Medicine, Pediatrics, or Therapy. Courses in years 1 and 2 are about the same for all students, but the content of sciences taught to each of these three groups is directed toward each particular specialty (e.g. for the Pediatric Faculty Microbiology emphasizes the microbiology of children; Anatomy emphasizes anatomy of children). These include instruction in such basic sciences as Gross Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, as well as Language (English, German, or French), Physical Education, and some others~

Years 3-4-5 are to finish the preclinical training and begin greater emphasis on clinical training with students having direct contact with patients. At this point, students in the Pediatric Faculty focus their training within the children’s hospital, while students of the General Faculty train in the general hospitals. During the course of medical education in Russia, hands-on practice takes a special place. Four weeks of nursing experiences at different clinics and hospitals is required of all third year students of the General and Pediatric Faculty as well as practice for fourth year students as physician’s associates. After the fifth year, there is two months of practice on the three main disciplines of Therapy, Surgery, and Obstetrics/Gynecology.

Year 6 is termed the Subordinatura – in which students in the General and Pediatric Faculty specialize (further) in one of the basic fields of medicine. According to the existing state regulations the Subordinatura is available in three clinical disci?plines: Therapy, Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynecology. During this year students receive intense clinical training under faculties of these respective depart?ments. At the same time students improve their knowledge in related disciplines. Upon completion of year 6, students of the General and Pediatric Faculty are awarded a diploma indicating the completion of their course work in medicine~ Stomatology Faculty (dental students) finish training in five years.

The last stage of medical education (year 7) is a 1-year specialization, the Internatura or Internship, for students of the General and Pediatric Faculty. The purpose of this one additional year is to establish a base for further specialization. Most graduated students do their Internatura at the clinics and hospitals where they are assigned by a State Committee to determine young specialist distribution. These students do their internship under the Chairs of the departments of hospitals and clinics who have very high qualifications and long work experience. These specialists of a region, ministry of health system are responsible for the quality of training on the internship. Main specialists leading the respec?tive work take part in the specialization of physicians, methodical help to the Chairs of departments of clinics and hospitals, coordination of the entire work on internship’s training.

The final step in a physician’s training is an examination at the completion of the internship. Upon passing this examination, s/he is granted permission by the Ministry of Health System to practice medicine in Russia.

1.S. Ya.Tchikin, Yu.F. Isakov, B.M. Tcheknev, G. D. Zhxtnitskn (1973) High medical school in USSR. “Medicine?, Moscow.