500 – LEARNING SPACES FOR SMALL GROUP SESSIONS
ST GEORGE’S UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
PURPOSE: The impact of learning spaces on learning outcomes has not been the subject of much research. Little is known about which type of learning space is more conducive to foster active learning. We surveyed a group of M2 students on their preferences regarding learning spaces for small group discussions.
METHODS: At SGU the medical pharmacology course includes 9 small group sessions. Small group sessions are held in small rooms, 11ft by 12 ft. Small groups comprise 7 to 8 students and one facilitator. Each small group occupies one room. In most other courses, small group sessions are held in large rooms where each small group of students sits around a table. Students’ views were gathered using an online survey. The survey asked students whether they prefer to have small group discussions in small rooms in which only one small group of students occupies the room, or in large rooms holding multiple small groups of students. Participation was entirely voluntary and anonymous.
RESULTS: 82% of students preferred small rooms, 6% preferred large rooms and 12 % had no preference.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our survey indicate that students overwhelmingly prefer small rooms in which each small group of students occupies one small room to large rooms holding multiple groups of students. Students’ comments provide an important insight on the reasons for their preference. An overarching theme emerges from their comments: Small rooms are quieter, more intimate, less distracting, and encourage discussion, and participation. Our survey clearly indicates that small rooms provide a more adequate environment to conduct small group sessions, thus promoting active learning.
501 – INTER-INSTITUTIONAL FACULTY DEVELOPMENT AMOUNG MEDICAL SCIENCE AND HEALTHCARE EDUCATORS IN SOUTHEAST ALABAMA
Chante L. Richardson
Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine
PURPOSE: With the goals of enhancing educational excellence and forming collaborative relationships, in 2015, the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine hosted the first Inter-institutional Faculty Development Workshop by partnering with Troy University’s School of Nursing and Wallace Community College of Health Sciences and Health Care Professions. This abstract describes the evolvement of an annual inter-institutional faculty development workshop for health educators in southeastern Alabama.
METHODS: The inter-institutional faculty development half-day workshop is a collaborative enrichment experience attended by educators in programs of osteopathic medicine, medical assisting, nursing, respiratory therapy assisting, and physical therapist assisting. Forty-three (43) faculty members representing these three institutions attended the inaugural 2015 workshop consisting of a networking lunch followed by faculty speakers from all three institutions.
RESULTS: The theme for the inaugural 2015 program was “Engaging Students Using E-Learning Tools” which held sessions on how to use electronic-based learning resources such as Adobe Captivate and iSpring. Survey evaluations revealed that 97% of participants considered the workshop interesting and relevant. One respondent reported that the best part was the “collaboration between educators, and learning about different venues to engage students.” Additionally, 90% also reported that the workshop not only moved them to share this information with other faculty members, but also to employ these tools in their didactics. With this success, another workshop was planned and implemented; the 2016 workshop focused on “Innovative Teaching Styles” that included presentations on The Flipped Classroom and Team Based Learning. The post-workshop surveys echoed the results seen previously.
CONCLUSIONS: The inter-institutional faculty development workshop has been received with such high success during its first two years that an expansion to include the College of Practical Nursing and Allied Health at the Bainbridge State College in Bainbridge, Georgia is being planned for 2017.
502 – REGIONAL PEER COACHING PROGRAM FOR FOUNDATIONAL SCIENCES FACULTY
Jean M Bailey and Ann Voorheis-Sargent
Central Michigan University College of Medicine and Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine
PURPOSE: As new medical schools, Oakland University William Beaumont (OUWB), Central Michigan University (CMU), and Western Michigan University (WMU) employ a large number of junior basic science faculty teaching in the foundational sciences. At CMU and OUWB, these junior faculty have limited mentoring opportunities as they outnumber tenured faculty. It is important to help faculty connect with regional colleagues teaching in similar disciplines to provide research guidance, teaching and learning advice, and scholarship collaboration options. The regional peer coaching program seeks to provide support to these faculty.
METHODS: While this is currently a work in progress, program effectiveness will be reviewed using qualitative analysis of participant experiences.
RESULTS: It is expected that this program will have a positive impact on junior faculty experiences at new medical schools.
CONCLUSIONS: Early indications point to success for this program. Faculty are connecting, sharing best practices, and talking about expanding their peer relationships to include more faculty. Lessons learned include pairing faculty, providing time for meetings, and the importance of gathering all the peer coaches for a debriefing/outcomes sharing event.
503 – MASTER STUDENTS cGPA IS A BETTER PREDICTOR OF SUCCESS IN MEDICAL SCHOOL WHEN COMPARED TO MCAT SCORES
Bersabel Woldemariam, Xia Wang, and Amina Sadik
Touro University Nevada
PURPOSE: In order to determine the best admission criteria for Master of Health Science (MHS) students into medical school, this study analyzed the performance of former MHS students of Touro University Nevada (TUN) who were accepted to Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUNCOM) between the years of 2010 and 2014.
METHODS: The MHS cumulative GPAs (cGPAs), MCAT scores, preclinical years’ cGPAs, and the scores on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX 1 and 2-CE) of MHS students were analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether or not there are strong associations between different performance indicators.
RESULTS: The results indicate that there are strong and significant correlations between the MHS cGPAs and OMS I cGPAs and OMS II cGPAs (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.52, P = 0.0015, respectively). There are strong and significant correlations between MHS cGPAs and COMLEX 1 and COMLEX 2-CE scores (r = 0.49, P = 0.0040 and r = 0.50, P = 0.011, respectively). However, there are no significant correlations between the MCAT scores of these students and their OMS I and OMS II cGPAs (r = -0.12, P = 0.51 and r = -0.095, P = 0.59, respectively), and no significant correlations between MCAT scores and COMLEX 1 and COMLEX 2-CE scores (r = -0.17, P = 0.35, and r = -0.14, P = 0.50, respectively).
CONCLUSION: MHS cGPA is a good admission criterion. Master students who do well on the MHS program go on to excel in both the preclinical years of medical school and their board exams. Although some of them may have lower MCAT scores and/or uGPAs coming in to the graduate program, their performance in medical school is comparable and sometimes even better than that of students who do not have a post-graduate education.
504 – BUILDING PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT ORAL HEALTH WORKFORCE CAPACITY: A FIVE- YEAR RETROSPECTIVE
Denise Rizzolo, Cynthia Lord, Olivia Ziegler, and Tiffany Flick
Kean University, nccPA Health Foundation/Case Western/IAMSE Member, PAEA, and nccPA Health Foundation
PURPOSE: More than 50 million people in the US live in areas where accessing dental care is difficult. The Surgeon General, the IOM, and others have called for equipping non-dental providers with oral health (OH) competencies. Certified physician assistants (PAs) are uniquely qualified to embrace OH because screening and behavior change counseling are fundamental to the profession. More than 108,500 certified PAs practice in all settings and specialties, and the profession is growing with 67 educational programs poised to join the 218 accredited US programs. In 2010, the PA Leadership Initiative in OH deployed a collective impact strategy that leverages the influence of the national PA organizations and PA interprofessional champions to reduce disparities and eradicate dental disease.
METHODS: This was a mixed design of qualitative and quantitative measures over a 5 year span and is continuing. Multiple surveys were sent to PA educators and practicing PAs. PA educators, clinicians, and students have worked alongside with those who set accreditation and certification standards to develop strategies, including tools and workshops, to teach OH competencies.
RESULTS: Over 5 years, more than 500 PAs participated in this initiative. In 2014, 78% of responding PA programs provided OH instruction compared to 33% in 2008, and 32% of practicing PAs reported they encountered OH disorders weekly in a professional practice analysis. There is a small gap between present and desired ability to screen and perform oral examinations along with knowledge of the oral-systemic link, however, PAs are willing to decrease this gap.
CONCLUSION: The initiative supports a network of PAs who understand that OH must be integrated into overall health. Shared outcomes demonstrate that the collective impact model is equipping PAs to expand workforce capacity as partners for addressing this preventable public health crisis, reducing OH disparities, and eradicating dental disease.
505 – REWARD PREFERENCES FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION INVOLVEMENT BASED ON ACADEMIC RANK
Connie Ju and Devra Becker
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospital Cleveland Medical Center
PURPOSE: Junior faculty retention remains a concern at many academic institutions. Innovative studies have created proposals for measuring clinical and educational productivity to guide incentive development, but few studies have reviewed preferences for these systems based on unique faculty composition. This study assesses the influence of academic rank on reward preferences for educational involvement.
METHODS: An online survey was sent to full-time clinical faculty of the primary affiliated hospital system for a Midwestern medical school. Respondents were asked for their demographic information and level of seniority. They were then asked to select their top preferences for educational recognition from the options: implementation of a relative value unit (RVU) system, implementation of an educational value unit (EVU) system, bonus payments, increased benefits, academic recognition, protected time, or benefits to the department/division. Differences in preferences were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.
RESULTS: A total of 854 surveys were distributed, and 166 were completed for an overall response rate of 20%. Differences in preferences based on seniority were significant for bonus payments (p=0.008) and implementation of an EVU system (p=0.032). A greater proportion of senior faculty selected EVU implementation as a top 3 choice and a greater proportion of junior faculty preferred bonus payments.
CONCLUSION: Academic rank affects the method of educational recognition preferred by clinical faculty. Future considerations should be given to faculty composition when designing incentive structures for educational involvement.
506 – Women in Science
Christina McManus and Sarah Anderson
Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine
PURPOSE: The Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine wanted to develop a program that would engage middle and high school girls in the area of science. The Women in Science camp accepted girls in the entire Wiregrass Area of Alabama.
METHODS: A 3-day camp was designed with approximately 200 participants. Activities included female guest speakers, science-related activities and workshops, and Team-based learning activities. A ten-question survey was conducted after the camp to assess whether the girls that participated were more interested in pursuing a science-related career. The camp was funded by the Southeast Alabama Medical Center Foundation.
RESULTS: Approximately 90 % of the middle and high school girls that took the Women in Science Survey concluded that this program they would consider a career in science and take more science-related courses in high school and college. One hundred percent of the participants indicated that the program reinforced their plans to have a science-related career in the future.
CONCLUSION: The Women in Science camp is a unique tool to engage young girls with interests in science. These girls attend a camp for 3 days at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine. Survey results indicate that this camp strongly encourages young girls with an interest in science to pursue a science-related career.
507 – Exploring Intent to Communicate in an Interprofessional Critical Care Simulation Setting
Alison Howe and Laurie Leclair
University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine
PURPOSE: Decisions to speak up can have crucial implications for critically ill patients. For best care, interprofessional teams need to function as a cohesive unit with clear leadership and open communication, often a challenge in academic institutions where interprofessional critical care teams are subject to high resident physician and medical student turn over. Communication skills in such teams are of even greater importance.
In an interprofessional critical care simulation project at the Larner College of Medicine, researchers explored what led to the decision to either withhold information from the team or to speak up. The theory of planned behavior was used as a theoretical framework to facilitate understanding of choice to communicate.
METHODS: A phenomenological qualitative research study was performed to explore how participants in an interprofessional critical care simulation made sense of their decision to communicate or to not communicate. Ten participants were recruited to and provided their thoughts and experiences in a semi-structured interview immediately following a simulation event and team debrief. Transcripts were coded using HyperResearch 3.5.1 and evaluated for themes.
RESULTS: Interprofessional participants were separated into Physicians in Training (medical students and residents) and Professionals (nurses and respiratory therapists.) Positive attitude, clearly defined norms and positive perceptions of control were associated with positive communication intention. Professionals, particularly nurses, identified patient care and safety as a major driver of behavior. Physicians in Training expressed concerned about professional hierarchy and norms associated with current role which often prevented a decision to communicate.
CONCLUSION: While further research is warranted, both within the simulation environment and in the critical care setting, the current study suggests that decision to communicate varies by professional discipline and was influenced by attitude, defined norms and perceptions of control. Academic interprofessional critical care team training should likely take into account these communication barriers.
508 – HIGH IMPACT METHOD OF INTRODUCING MEDICAL STUDENTS TO PRACTICE IN RURAL AND UNDERSERVED AREAS
Larry Nichols, Randolph Devereaux, Melissa B. Vitale, Vivian Vu, Sophia Rashid, and M. Marie Dent
Mercer University School of Medicine
PURPOSE: To advance the mission of the Mercer University School of Medicine, educating physicians to meet the primary care needs of rural and underserved areas (including 88.7% of the 159 counties in Georgia), our school developed the “Windshield Tour,” an orientation-week program of driving groups of first year medical students to rural and/or underserved areas.
METHODS: Each group is given a packet of information about the rural and medically underserved areas in Georgia along with suggested questions to ask the practitioners they meet. Groups of 8 students and a faculty member drive to various small towns and impoverished urban areas 20-90 minutes from the school where they tour clinics, hospitals, health-related facilities, and community areas. They engage with primary care team-members who describe their work and paint a picture of serving these communities.
RESULTS: Going to rural and underserved areas, meeting practitioners in person and interacting by asking them about life and medical practice gives students a far more robust experience and realistic ideas about being a physician serving the primary care needs of these communities than reading a printed text or watching a video. Student evaluations of the tour including “I loved being able to see community medicine at practice” and “If the goal was to gain a better understanding of healthcare in rural Georgia, then the trip was a success” attest to the value of the experience. New faculty indicate that they develop a deeper understanding of the institution’s mission, which enhances their teaching.
CONCLUSION: The Windshield Tour is a high impact way to introduce students to the mission of the school. The experience highlights positive aspects of rural practice, provides a context for future discussions about medicine in rural/underserved areas, and strengthens the ties of the medical school with communities in the state.
509 – STUDENT PERCEPTION OF THE VALUE OF PREVIOUS ANATOMY COURSEWORK AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IT AS A PRE-REQUISITE
Ellen Robertson, Kenneth Thompson, and Andrew Notebaert
University of Mississippi Medical Center and Millsaps College
PURPOSE: Medical schools in the United States generally do not require students to take anatomy as a prerequisite course for admission. A previous investigation of medical students at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) found the 50% of students that have anatomy coursework prior to medical school perform better on the Medical Gross Anatomy course in the first semester. The purpose of this study was to determine if students who had anatomy prior to the medical course perceived it as beneficial as well as to describe their perceived benefits.
METHODS: A survey was given at the start and end of the medical Gross Anatomy course collecting both quantitative and qualitative data regarding students’ perceptions of their previous anatomy coursework. Responses were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Thirty-five initial codes were created from student responses. These codes were then analyzed into predominant themes regarding each question.
RESULTS: The initial survey was completed by 143 of 148 (97%) enrolled, and 97 reported previous anatomy coursework (66%). The final survey was completed by 115 students (78%). In response to questions about the value of previous anatomy coursework and if it should be recommended as a pre-requisite, 106 responses (92%) from the final survey indicated that anatomy should be recommended for pre-medical students. Answers were further coded into five main themes: importance of content, speed of class and time management, anatomical terminology and language, volume of information and depth understanding, with the greatest perceived benefit being familiarity and exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: The predominant themes of the responses point to the perceived importance of early anatomy experience on anatomy vocabulary, exposure to content, and amount of time spent on the current course. Looking forward, these responses can guide how educators view the importance of anatomy coursework prior to medical school.
510 – DEVELOPING A LITERATURE-BASED INTERVIEW SCRIPT TO EXPLORE MENTORSHIP MODELS IN MEDICAL EDUCATION SCHOLARSHIP: A COLLABORATION AMONG 6 MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS
Donna O’Malley, Saori Wendy Herman, Eileen Cichoski, Kelly, Alice Fornari, Rebecca D Blanchard, Steven Rougas, Norma S. Saks, Jennifer Kogan, and Stephanie Ratmeyer
University of Vermont, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Northwell Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School – Baystate, and Alpert Medical School of Brown University
PURPOSE: Medical education scholarship (MES), including medical education research, is meaningful work that benefits faculty, as well as learners and their institutions. Negotiating the terrain of MES – which often includes new languages, systems, and thought processes – requires consistent and effective mentorship. Unfortunately, effective mentorship for MES is lacking and an effective mentorship model has not been identified.
The purpose of this project was to conduct a literature search to inform and refine an interview script as the first part of a larger project that will identify elements of a model for MES. This abstract describes the systematic search process and recurring themes that emerged.
METHODS: This project is funded by the Northeastern Group on Educational Affairs (NEGEA) and is a collaborative effort among 6 different medical institutions and 9 individuals with diverse professional backgrounds (physicians, librarians, educators).
The librarians created a search strategy using the grant proposal’s research question and inclusion/exclusion criteria, as well as additional terms provided by the team. Articles initially identified as focusing on basic and clinical science research mentorship in medicine also guided the creation of the strategy. PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched.
RESULTS: Search results were divided up among the 9 individuals and have gone through two stages of screening. After the second screening, a form was used to extract recurring themes. The final analysis of the themes was conducted by 2 members of the team and discussed by the whole team. The result includes an interview script grounded in evidence based practice.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall efforts of this project will provide a model for mentorship in MES. The model will enhance faculty development efforts in scholarship. Aside from the project’s purpose, this collaborative experience provided a unique faculty development opportunity for the researchers.
511 – Pre-medical Students’ Expectations of Medical School
Andrew Notebaert, Lisa Biswas, and Nicole Borges
University of Mississippi Medical Center
PURPOSE: While many expect that students entering medical school are typically of high academic quality, little is known about what incoming medical students expect medical school to be like. When expectations do not match reality, students may have to radically adapt or risk struggling in an intense academic climate. The purpose of this study was to identify expectations that pre-medical students have of medical school and to describe what influences these expectations.
METHODS: Pre-medical students were asked to volunteer for an interview focused on their expectations of medical school and the things that shaped these expectations. Interviews were conducted by two of the researchers and were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. Analysis was performed with a constant comparative method using a grounded theory approach.
RESULTS: Four participants, all female and all having experience between their undergraduate degrees and medical school, participated in the study. All of the students were entering medical school the semester after the interviews took place. When it came to student expectations of medical school, two themes dominated. The first was that medical school was going to be very difficult and the other was that it would take most if not all of their time in order to succeed. The biggest influences on these expectations were friends in medicine and current medical students. Students anticipated their focus was going to be on learning vast amounts of information as well concentrating on “high-yield” concepts, or concepts that they would be assessed on repeatedly.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-medical students did not foresee the ability to have time to devote to activities outside of medical school requirements. These perceptions are mainly influenced by the perceptions of students currently in medical school and may be vastly different from the perceptions that administrators or faculty of medical schools may want their incoming students to have.
Poster Award Nominee
512 – The Imposter Phenomenon across the Span of Medical Training
Kayley Swope, Britta Thompson, and Paul Haidet
Penn State University College of Medicine
PURPOSE: The imposter phenomenon has been described anecdotally and empirically in medical students, but it is unclear how imposter feelings may fluctuate during times of transition in medical training. This project’s aim was to explore the imposter phenomenon during times of transition compared to non-transitional points during the school year.
METHODS: We surveyed first and second year medical students about gender, class year, and imposter feelings using the Clance Imposter Phenomenon Scale at both transition and non-transition points of the school year. First year students completed surveys upon entry to medical school (transition). Second year medical students completed surveys at the beginning of their school year (non-transition).
RESULTS: Of the total 163 students, 4.3% had minimal imposter feelings, 35.4% had moderate imposter feelings, 50% had frequent imposter feelings, and 10.4% had intense imposter feelings. The overall mean imposter score was 63.66 on a scale of 0-100 (SD=13.37) which corresponded to frequent imposter feelings. This score is comparable to or slightly greater than other medical learners reported in the literature. There was a trend toward females having higher imposter scores (p=0.13). Although second-year students (non-transition) tended to have higher imposter scores on the various subscales of the instrument, there was no significant difference between transitioning students and non-transitioning students (p=0.624).
CONCLUSION: The imposter phenomenon is an important facet of student wellness. Because transitions in education are pivotal in setting new patterns in students’ professional development, it is important for educators to know when to intervene to mitigate effects of the imposter phenomenon. At this early stage in our project, there was no difference between transition and non-transition states, but we did see a trend toward higher imposter feelings in females and second-year students. Further research is needed to understand imposter feelings and their effects on the educational experiences of medical students.
513 – Using Qualitative Methods to Capture the Impact of an Interprofessional Education Event on Students’ Conceptualization of Geriatric Health & Wellness
Denise Kay and Diane Schafer-Mayse
University of Central Florida College of Medicine
PURPOSE: This inquiry compared themes between medical(M), pharmacy(Rx), social work(SW) and physical therapy(PT) students’ conceptualizations of geriatric health & wellness and their subsequent interdisciplinary student team wellness plan, following a team-based assessment of a geriatric adult(GA).
METHODS: The word frequency feature from NVivo 10 was used to identify the 20 most common terms, by discipline, in students’ responses to these two questions:
- Harold’s grand-daughter has asked you to assess the overall health and wellness of her 75 yo grandpa. You are getting ready to meet them and interview Harold. List five things you know you want to explore in your assessment.
- Based on your response above, what are five questions or prompts you’d plan to use in your interview with Harold?
Students were assigned to interdisciplinary teams to conduct a health & wellness assessment and create a wellness plan for their GA. We used thematic analysis to identify themes in the team’s plans.
RESULTS: Individual themes – All four disciplines shared three common themes: Medical history/health conditions, current medications, and family/social history. Use of the patient’s name was common among Rx, DPT, and SW students. Mental status/health history was common among M and SW students.
Interdisciplinary team themes – ‘Medication’ was a common theme in over half of the team plans. ‘Engagement’ and ‘physical activity’ emerged in the team plans but were not common among individual student themes.
CONCLUSIONS: The common theme of ‘physical activity’ among team plans highlights the influence of PT on the team members’ conceptualization of geriatric wellness. In the pre-assessment, PT students were the only discipline to mention physical activity. ‘Engagement’ was not a consistent point of focus for any individual student’s conceptualization of geriatric wellness. Qualitative analysis holds promise for capturing the influence of Interprofessional Education on individual student’s conceptualization of patient care.
514 – THE DOCTOR WILL SEE YOU NOW: VISUAL AUGMENTATION FOR INCREASED PATIENT AWARENESS IN A LEARNER-CENTERED CURRICULUM
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
PURPOSE: Fragmenting medical education into pre-clinical and clinical years creates a dichotomous relationship between patient awareness and basic science education. We investigated whether visually supplementing preclinical case vignettes with patient illustrations can bridge these two crucial elements of medical education.
METHODS: Patient illustrations for clinical cases were designed using physical descriptors from the text-based vignettes used in small group learning. A total of 179 second-year medical students participated in this study and were randomized into an experimental or non-experimental group. Group 1 received image-supplemented cases and Group 2 received the traditional text-based vignettes. Students then received and completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) empathy and perspective subscales delivered electronically by REDCap. Quantitative index scores between the two groups were analyzed using a two-tailed t-test.
RESULTS: The total survey completion rate was 132/179 (74%). There was a significant difference (p=0.047) between the combined empathy and perspective scores of 22.62 for Group 1 (n=72) and 18.38 for Group 2 (n=60). These results are comparable to IRI scores from the 2015 AAMC Y2Q Survey, which reported a national average of 23.9 for 2nd year medical students. Further analysis of IRI subscales showed the two groups differed significantly in perspective (p=0.03), but not empathy (p= 0.10).
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggests that the use of patient illustrations in problem-based learning had an impact on patient perspective development, but not empathy, in medical students. Data collection for delayed content recall is currently ongoing and aimed at determining whether increased perspective development for patients promotes knowledge retention.
515 – Clinician and learning specialist co-teaching: unique perspectives to enhance student learning
Jennifer Meka and Todd Felix
Penn State College of Medicine
PURPOSE: Co-teaching is defined as two educators working together with groups of learners sharing the planning, delivery, and assessment of instruction in addition to physical space (Bacharach, Heck & Dank, 2004). In health sciences, co-teaching frequently occurs in the clinical environment or among clinicians and basic scientists. We wanted to explore the potential benefit of using a co-teaching approach with learning specialist and clinician to enhance student learning.
METHODS: A clinician with expertise in teaching and assessing clinical reasoning and our institution’s learning specialist worked together to develop and deliver an interactive session for students. The session focused on learning strategies and how to use them to develop medical knowledge and clinical reasoning skills.
RESULTS: This approach provides opportunities for both teachers to use their different perspectives to break down difficult skills and provide opportunities to begin to support student use of these skills in a variety of contexts. Co-teachers were able to deconstruct the mental models and metacognition that are occurring automatically in experienced practitioners providing valuable learning opportunities for students.
CONCLUSIONS: Students benefit from the shared expertise of clinician and learning specialist. Having these different perspectives working closely helped to identify and directly address misunderstandings or skill deficits based on real time observation. Using a co-teaching approach models interprofessional collaboration and can help support student development of cognitive skills such as reasoning, decision making, problem solving, organization, etc.
As co-teachers, we have benefited from the supportive relationship and shared responsibility for instruction and scaffolding activities based on student needs. It has raised awareness of pedagogical considerations and the impact of instruction on student learning. This awareness extends into practice beyond the “classroom” as we work with colleagues in a variety of environments and learners across the continuum in health sciences education.
516 – INCREASING AWARENESS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Chante Richardson, Audrey Vasauskas, Amanda Robinson, and Sarah Anderson
Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine
PURPOSE: The goal of the Health and Anatomy Student workshop is to increase awareness of the importance and practical application of anatomical and physiological sciences in clinical and medical education in the Wiregrass region (southern Georgia, southeastern Alabama, and the Florida panhandle) among high school students. Programs such as this give students early hands-on experience in health science field.
METHODS: High school students attended the 3rd annual student workshop centered on the Respiratory system. All sessions were led by medical school faculty. Attendees rotated through the following programs: 1. Hands-on anatomy laboratory with prosected human cadaver and dissection of porcine lungs, 2. Respiratory-case simulation laboratory using the SimMan®, 3. Pulmonary function test and lung mechanics demonstration, and 4. Presentations from a radiologist, respiratory therapist, and pathologist. Using a Likert scale, participants were surveyed post-workshop to determine the effect of the workshop on attitudes, impressions, and opinions of the health sciences.
RESULTS: Sixty percent of the survey respondents stated they feel sure of themselves when they do science. One hundred percent of respondents agreed that they plan on taking science classes in college as well as considering a career in science. Half of the respondents agreed that they like science more after attending the workshop and all respondents agreed that they would like to attend workshop in summer of 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is vital to assessing the outcomes of high school student participation in the Health and Anatomy program in the Wiregrass region. We show that the workshop has a positive impact on students’ attitudes toward science, and pursuit of a career in basic or health-related sciences. We plan to continue to survey participants annually and track the previous participants for three years.
517 – Nature or Nurture: What Factors Influence the Selection of Learning Resources by First Year Medical Students?
Eve Gallman, Thom Gaddy, Michael Russell, and Julie Gaines
AU/UGA Medical Partnership
PURPOSE: We wish to guide first year medical students to become self-directed lifelong learners. Before introducing new training, we wish to determine how our students currently use resources. Here, we ask:  Does student use of resources show a step-change at the beginning of each new systems-based module (does content matter)?  Is student use of resources influenced by other students and faculty (does culture matter)?
METHODS: Our students are divided into teams of 8 for case-based small group learning (SGL). Each team encounters a new case each week, requiring knowledge the students do not yet possess. Students identify topics and present brief oral and written reports twice per week. New teams are assigned for spring semester. Thus each student does two written reports per week, encounters a new organ system every few weeks, and interacts with two different teams per year. To determine student use of resources, we access the ~60 reports per student and tally the number and type of resources each (de-identified) student uses per report. Several type of resource are tallied, and include: basic science text, clinical science text, primary literature, review, and others.
RESULTS: Initial observations suggest selection of resources does not vary significantly between teams or between organ systems. There does, however, appear to be wide variation between individual students within any team.
Interestingly, across teams, across modules, and across two semesters (2015-16), the average number of resources accessed per team per day was surprisingly consistent. Analysis will include spring semester, 2017.
CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that individual coaching as students learn to become self-directed lifelong learners may be more important than establishing a strong culture of good resource utilization within a team. It would be of interest, in future, to examine whether there is a correlation between effective use of resources and overall academic success in the first year.
Poster Award Nominee
518 – Building a community of health science educators: the impact of the IAMSE webinar
Ingrid Bahner, Rick Vari, Larry Hurtubise, Michele Haight, Giulia Bonaminio, Elissa Hall, Nehad El-Sawi, Pat Finnerty, Brandi Hinkle, Robert McAuley, Veronica Michaelsen, Rebecca Rowe, and Jack Strandhoy
Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Virginia Tech Carrilion School of Medicine, Ohio State University School of Medicine, OHSU School of Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine
PURPOSE: The IAMSE web based seminar (webinar) series offers a year round opportunity for educators to engage with health science education topics. Each webinar series focuses on a specific theme to foster the exchange of ideas and expertise. A series typically consists of five presentations that address different aspects of the series’ theme. To encourage engagement, during 2016 the webinar planning committee implemented an online communication platform allowing participants to type questions and comments during the webinar. The committee also piloted a ‘Twitter Chat’ before one of the webinars.
METHODS: To determine the impact of the webinars and the new interactive strategies, evaluation data from 9 webinar series dating back to fall 2013 were analyzed. The evaluation was distributed via email to webinar participants and utilizes a five point Likert scale. Data were analyzed by adding both levels of positive or negative responses. The response rate was calculated using the number of registrations. Overall response rate was 36.7%, ranging from 18.6% to 65.6% for each series. In addition to the survey, data transcripts from the communication platform and Twitter analytics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Registrations have increased steadily; registrations in the spring 2016 were 2.3 fold higher than in the fall 2013. The number of institutional registrations varied for each series considerably; institutional registrations were on average 1.55 fold higher than individual subscriptions, however the range varied from 0.77-3.33 for the different series. Overall satisfaction with each series was 77.8% +/- 6.3% including positive comments about the online communication platform. Analyses of the online dialog transcripts revealed that during each session 22.8 +/- 14 questions were asked. Additionally, requests for citations as well as communications between members of the audience were also noted.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the IAMSE webinar and its interactive format appear to meaningfully engage medical educators.
519 – TO INTERVIEW OR NOT TO INTERVIEW? THE MEDICAL STUDENTS SELECTED BY DIFFERENT WAYS AND THEIR CLINICAL PERFORMANCE
Yen-Yuan Chen, Kuan-Han Lin, and Tzong-Shinn Chu
Department of Medical Education, National Taiwan University Hospital, Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Bioethics
PURPOSE: One of the most significant current discussions in medical education is how medical schools select the best undergraduates or high school students from a continuously increasing pool application candidates. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical performance of post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents who entered the medical school by face-to-face interview, and by only writing tests.
METHODS: The demographics, clinical performance and way of entering the medical school of the PGY-1s from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2016 who graduated from a single medical school were retrospectively collected. The way of entering the medical school was categorized as face-to-face interview (FI) and writing test only (W). Clinical performance was indicated by mini-CEX for clinical skills, CbD for clinical reasoning, and DOPS for procedural skills. Student t-test and multivariate linear regression analysis were conducted for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively.
RESULTS: A total of 160 PGY1 who graduated from a medical school located at Northern Taiwan were eligible for this study. No statistical significance was identified between FI and W PGY-1s in mini-CEX, CbD, and DOPS in bivariate analysis. After controlling for gender distribution between the two groups, we found that the PGY-1s in FI and W did not showed significant difference in clinical skills, clinical reasoning, and procedural skills as indicated by mini-CEX, CbD, and DOPS, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The medical school applicants who entered medical school by face-to-face interview have no better clinical performance than those who entered medical school by only writing tests.
520 – DEVELOPING EARLY TO MID-CAREER HEALTH PROFESSIONS EDUCATIONAL LEADERS: THE LEAD CERTIFICATE PROGRAM
Sheila W. Chauvin and Britta M. Thompson
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center – New Orleans, School of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
PURPOSE: The Leadership Education and Development (LEAD) certificate program was created in 2009 to address a professional development gap in educational leadership for early to mid-career health professions educators who are aspiring to or already in educational leadership roles.
METHODS: The curriculum is grounded in a transformational leadership conceptual framework that encompasses four domains: 1) Leading through Strategic Vision and Setting Direction, 2) Leading by Developing Others, 3) Leading by Managing Effectively, and 4) Leading by Developing the Organization. During the year-long program, use of relevant theoretical frameworks, evidence-based collaborative learning, and real-life application facilitate Fellows’ transfer of learning to everyday practice. The instructional model includes the following components: 1) four half-day, domain-based, flipped classroom workshops; 2) coaching by a LEAD Faculty Coach and a Fellow-identified Local Coach; 3) quarterly, case-based teleconferences; 4) structured, independent learning and reflective practice using a LEAD Learning Portfolio; and 4) personalized, real-life application through an Applied Leadership Focus (ALF) activity.
RESULTS: Begun as a single regional model (2010), the program expanded nation-wide program with four simultaneous region-based cohorts (2014). LEAD is also available a one-year, institution-sponsored, campus-based program. In total, over 100 individuals have graduated. Program evaluation results from pre/post program and session questionnaires, Fellows’ culminating written reflection, 360-degree assessments and other methods indicate substantial leadership learning and increased leadership effectiveness resulting from the LEAD content and learning activities. Results also demonstrate continued supportive relationships beyond graduation among graduates, and with their respective faculty and/or local coaches. Many graduates have reported substantial leadership advancement by or soon after LEAD graduation and attribute their successes to LEAD experiences.
CONCLUSIONS: Begun as a grass-roots, regional initiative, the LEAD certificate program is now a nation-wide resource to address the professional development of early to mid-career health professions education leaders.
521 – HIGH ANKLE OR SYNDESMOTIC LIGAMENT SPRAINS DESERVE UNIVERSAL RECOGNITION IN HUMAN ANATOMY COURSES, TEXTS AND ATLASES AS PART OF A COMMON INJURY
Ryan Emery, David Ryan, and Brion Benninger
Western University of Health Sciences COMP-Northwest, Medical Anatomy Center, Departments of Medical Anatomical Sciences, Neuromuscular Medicine
PURPOSE: Ankle injuries are very common in sports and civilian life representing approximately 14% of all musculoskeletal injuries treated. Distal tibio-fibular syndesmotic ligament complex (DTFLc) are intimate with the ankle joint, attaching between tibia and fibula. Injuries to DTFLc are referred as high-ankle sprains which are associated with increased pain, delayed recovery and fractures in approximately 50% of cases compared to conventional low-ankle sprains. DTFLc appears overtly inconsistent in current anatomy literature. Objective of this study was to investigate and analyze DTFLc in donor cadavers, 3D-reconstructed CT, novel 50-micron cross-sectional slices, current anatomy literature with terminology suggestions.
METHODS: Literature search was conducted regarding 10 commonly used human anatomy texts and 10 atlases assessing content, illustration and labeling of DTFLc. Sectra 3D-CT/MRI reconstructive technology was performed to reveal DTFLc. Dissection of 54 donor cadavers (104sides,54Rt:50Lt) to identify DTFLc. Anatomy courses from East Coast, Midwest and West Coast USA medical schools and Europe, Australia and New Zealand were asked if they dissected and/or tested DTFLc in lab and/or taught them formally in lectures. Unique 50-micron cross-sectional dataset was acquired and analyzed.
RESULTS: Literature revealed 1/10 texts discussed clinical DTFLc and 1/10 atlases partially illustrated but 0/10 fully demonstrated all DTFLc. SECTRA performed 3D-reconstruction and all 104 dissected lower limbs revealed ankle DTFLc. No medical schools formally dissected, tested or lectured on ankle-specific DTFLc. High or DTFLc ankle sprains are reported to present in 10% of injured ankles. Many high ankle sprain’s are missed or wrongly diagnosed. This study demonstrated current anatomy texts and atlases do not emphasize DTFLc despite clinical importance.
CONCLUSION: This clinical anatomy study regarding ankle injuries demonstrates syndesmotic ligaments as DTFLc can be routinely identified via dissection and images suggesting anatomy texts and atlases include DTFLc for today’s learners.
522 – Acting Locally: Laying the Groundwork for a Longitudinal Global Health Curriculum
Mariah McNamara, Audree Frey, Aaron Hurwitz, and Majid Sadigh,
Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont and Western Connecticut Health Network
PURPOSE: Global Health experiences have tremendous potential to broaden medical students’ understanding of health care through active participation in the care of patient populations far from their home institutions. However, it’s challenging to foster student engagement with Global Health across all four years of medical school. Here we will describe the components of our evolving longitudinal program, which provides students with an ethical framework, theoretical grounding, and the skills and attitudes necessary for career-long engagement with Global Health.
METHODS: In June of 2012 UVM began a global collaboration with Western Connecticut Health Network (WCHN). Through this partnership, 53 students have traveled to 5 countries over the last 4 years. We developed a semester long pre-departure training for students who join the program and travel during the summer between their first and second year. A week-long Global Health course is required for all third year students, and during the fourth year, global health electives are offered in various specialties.
RESULTS: Weekly reflections completed by students during the first and fourth year electives demonstrate tremendous personal growth and appreciation for the role of physicians in relation to underserved popula-tions, as well as interest in continued involvement in Global Health as a career goal. Students who participate in the program longitudinally achieve more advanced and productive goals.
CONCLUSION: Collaboration with WCHN and our global partners has allowed students to participate in Global Health opportunities across the span of their medical education. This longitudinal approach builds engagement through preparedness and continuity, ultimately benefiting students, their future patients, and our partners. The use of new and pre-existing components of our global health curriculum offers a template that could be instructive for other institutions developing their own Global Health programs.
523 – CONDUCTING ULTRASOUND TO IDENTIFY 5TH METATARSAL FRACTURES WITH 5-12 MHZ CLASSIC LINEAR PROBES AND SONIVATE FINGER PROBES ON DONOR CADAVERS
Ali Abu-Alya, Nicholas Pettit, and Brion Benninger
Western University of Health Sciences COMP-Northwest, Medical Anatomy Center, Departments of Medical Anatomical Sciences, Neuromuscular Medicine
PURPOSE: The 5th metatarsal (5MT) is a unique shaped bone in the foot which is associated with multiple clinical presentations making diagnosis difficult. Proximal to distal, 5MT is divided into a styloid process, tubercle(tuberosity), base, shaft, head and neck. It is also divided into 3 zones. Gold standard imaging for fractures is x-ray, CT and MRI. Ultrasound has been reported to be beneficial in diagnosing fractures in long bones.The objective of this study was to investigate if 5MT fractures from donor cadavers could be identified by 1st year medical students(MS1) using linear ultrasound probes.
METHODS: Literature search was conducted regarding identifying 5MT with ultrasound by MS1 on donor cadavers. MS1(n=5) examined 12 legs from 7 donor cadavers (5 fractured 5MT, 8 normal) and compared 5-12MHz Sonivate Finger Probe (SFP) vs Classic Linear Probe (CLP).
RESULTS: Literature search revealed no known studies. SFP yielded lower sensitivity and higher specificity (67%,88%) compared to CLP (85%,79%). Overall, sensitivity and specificity of 5MT fracture identification were relatively high at 75% and 83%, respectively. CLP better identified fractures perhaps due to larger footplate, which allowed a wider viewing window along the long-axis, whereas SFP better ruled out fractures, perhaps due to higher resolution allowed by shorter footplate. Zone 1 injuries has the most common fracture, via hindfoot inversion at the base of the 5MT from fibularis brevis avulsing. Zone 2 caused by forefoot adduction results in Jones fractures located 1.5 cm distal to tuberosity at metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction, a known watershed. Zone 3 associates with repetitive microtrauma causing stress fractures.
CONCLUSION: This pilot study revealed MS1’s can identify 5MT fractures using ultrasound on donor cadavers, suggesting anatomy lab as an effective training ground using ultrasound, which is cheaper and safer than current imaging techniques, for fracture identification.
525 – ADOLESCENT OBESITY, DRUGS & ALCOHOL PREVENTION BY INTEGRATING INTERACTIVE SECTRA 3D VIRTUAL REALITY ANATOMY WITH PALPATORY PATHOLOGY
John Mang, Erin Asher, Heather Johnson, and Brion Benninger
Western University of Health Sciences, COMP-Northwest, Samaritan Health Services, and Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
PURPOSE: Childhood obesity greater than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents past 30 years. Excessive drinking is responsible for more than 4,300 yearly adolescent deaths, costing U.S.$24 billion. People aged 12 to 20 drink 11% of alcohol consumed in the U.S., which 90% is consumed as binge drinking. The objective of this study was to create and integrate an obesity, alcohol & drug prevention(OADP) experience utilizing innovative virtual medical technology, real-time imaging, visual and tactile human organ comparisons of healthy versus pathologic conditions during anatomy lab tour encouraging future healthcare providers.
METHODS: Literature search was conducted regarding medical anatomy labs providing OADP during anatomy lab tours. Millennial Medical Anatomy Lab(MMAL) hosted 4 hour OADP experience for high school students(ages 14-18:n=26:2groups-13). Tour OADP sessions were interactive Sectra 3D Visualization table identifying stereostructural anatomy, conducting ultrasound with novel finger probe experiencing triple feedback technique, and hands-on tutorial palpating and comparing actual livers and hearts revealing healthy versus cirrhosis/coronary artery pathology representing healthy versus abusive/chronic lifestyle choices. Question time-block. Interviews conducted on likes/dislikes and volunteer statements assessed.
RESULTS: Literature search revealed no known studies. MMAL successfully designed a tour consisting of education stations integrating interactive imaging technology, performing ultrasound and examining actual livers and hearts for middle/high school students. Student interviews(n=26) strongly agreed the integrated healthcare career, medical technology and prevention experience was the most valuable thus far. Dislikes, all thought it was to short and preferred smaller groups. This study effectively stimulated impressionable aged adolescence using multimedia OADP sessions during a MMAL tour.
CONCLUSION: This novel pilot study realized a 3-tiered idea successfully addressing disciplines of healthcare professionals, innovative medical technology and OADP while delivering multimodal educational stimulation in a MMAL.